History, tournaments, ranking list of sumo wrestlers and winning tactics
This is a myth, but according to kosyoki, some troubles were solved by the contest of strength. That was sumo. And according to nihonsyoki, sumo was played in front of the Emperor. On February 22nd, in 642, the kenji who were soldiers chosen from the whole country played a sumo for the messengers who were from the country called hyakusai whichi was at south part of the Korean Peninsula. This is the oldest article of sumo as historical fact. Over 3rd century to 6th century, the clay images, haniwa, of sumo wrestlers were found from ancient tombes, kofun. The model of the basical rule was established at heian era. And at the end of sengoku era, that was not so standard but the group who devot themselves to playing sumo appeared. In the latter half of 18th century sumo was in golden age. The grand sumo of edo had two tournaments in a year, and the number of days of program changed from 8 days to 10 days for each tournaments from 1778. Then, the program is consisted of 15 days from 1939 to now. And women were not purmited to watch sumo until 1873. Over edo era to meiji era, the highest position of sumo wrestlers was ozeki. In 1891, the yokozuna was appeared in the ranking list, and it was recognized from an association of sumo that yokozuna is the highest position of sumo in 1910. The outside broadcast relay on TV of sumo has started in 1953. The number of tournament changed from three in 1953 to six in 1958. Then, sumo has gotten to the present style.
There are six tournaments in a year. The first tournament, hatsubasyo, takes place in January at Japan national game hall, tokyo kokugikan. The spring tournament, harubasyo, is in March in the Osaka Prefecture gym.The summer tournament, natsubasyo is in May in the Japan national game hall. The Nagoya tournament is in July in the Aichi Prefecture gym. The autumn tournament, akibasyo, is in September in the Japan national game hall. The Kyusyu tournament is in November in the Fukuoka international center. Each of them go on 15 days, and the tournaments take place in every two months. The Osaka tournament is famous as going wild and unexpected one, because strong sumo wrestlers often lose the games. The autumn tournament is a hoped one, because the sumo wrestlers who has traind hard at the summer provincial tour would appear. Each tournaments has good points.
Ranking list of sumo wrestlers
Ranking list of sumo wrestlers is called banzuke in Japanese. The highest position is Yokozuna, and next is ozeki, then sekiwake, komusubi, maegashira, jyuryo, makushita, Sandanme, jyonidan and jyonokuchi. Through yokozuna to maegashira are called makuuchi-wrestler. The treatment is different depends on the rank. For example, the topknot is deffelent. The sumo wrestlers who are jyuryo or higher can wear their topknot like as the leaf of ginkgo, icho. But other wrestlers are allowed to dress their hair only for topknot. Juryo and higher wrestlers can wear kimono, but lower wrestlers can wear only yukata. And salary is also different. Makushita and lower wrestlers can't get salary, because they are train member of sumo. Thus, there are many differences of treatment for the sumo wrestlers depend on their rank.
oshitaoshi to push down the opponent.
tsukitaoshi to push down the opponent by tsupari. Tsupari is to push the opponent with both arms or reaching right and left hand alternately.
tsukidashi to make the opponent to go outside of the sumo ring by tuspari.
okurinage to push down the opponent from his back. No matter what kind of throw.
kirikaeshi in case from left ( right), put your knee on the opponent's outside of right (left) knee and push down him with twisting for backward.
sukuinage enter your arm into opponent's underarm and turn it over, then you throw hi T$BN(J like as trip him from underarm.
uwatenage hold the opponent's loincloth, mawashi, from the above of his arm which put on your underarm and throw him.
iponzeoi hold the opponent's one arm with your both arm and enter into his breast. Then, carry him on your shoulder and throw him forward.
kokomade shitte O-zumo-tsu Written by Hiromi Nema/ gurafusha
Last updated 6-Dec-2001